SCHWARTZ J., RÉALIS-DOYELLE E., DUBOS M.P., LEFRANC B., LEPRINCE J., FAVREL P. (2019). Characterization of an evolutionarily conserved calcitonin signaling system in a lophotrochozoan, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). J. Exp. Biol. ;222, jeb.201319. DOI : 10.1242/jeb.201319
In Protostoma, the diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) signalling system was long considered as the orthologue of the chordate calcitonin (CT) signalling system. Using the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) transcriptomic database GigaTON, we characterized seven G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) named Cragi-CTR1–7 and phylogenetically related to chordate CT receptors (CTRs) and to protostome DH31 receptors. Two CT precursors (Cragi-CTP1 and Cragi-CTP2) containing two CT-type peptides and encoded by two distinct genes with a similar organization were also characterized. These oyster neuropeptides (Cragi-CT1/2) exhibit the two N-terminal paired cysteine residues and, except CTP2-derived peptide (Cragi-CTP2dp), show the C-terminal proline-amide motif typical of deuterostome CT-type peptides. All mature Cragi-CTs except Cragi-CTP2dp were detected in visceral ganglion extracts using mass spectrometry. Cell-based assays revealed that the previously characterized oyster receptors Cg-CT-R and Cragi-CTR2 were specifically activated by Cragi-CT1b and Cragi-CT2, respectively. This activation does not require the co-expression of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Thus, oyster CT signalling appears functionally more closely related to vertebrate CT/CTR signalling than to calcitonin gene-related peptide/calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CGRP/CLR) signalling. Gene expression profiles in different adult tissues and in oysters acclimated to brackish water suggest the potential implication of both Cg-CT-R/Cragi-CT1b and Cragi-CTR2/Cragi-CT2 in water and ionic regulations, although with apparently opposite effects. The present study represents the first comprehensive characterization of a functional CT-type signalling system in a protostome and provides evidence for its evolutionarily ancient origin and its early role in osmotic homeostasis.
Mots-clé : Neuropeptide, Osmotic homeostasis, Diuretic hormone 31, GPCR, Lophotrochozoa